Schwarm

Schwarm Inhaltsverzeichnis

Schwarm steht für: Verband fliegender oder schwimmender Lebewesen, siehe Schwarmverhalten. Fischschwarm, siehe Schwarmfisch; Bienenschwarm, siehe. Eine Herde ist eine Ansammlung einer Gruppe von Tieren derselben Art, um miteinander zu suchen oder zu reisen. Bei Vögeln werden Herden typischerweise im Zusammenhang mit Migration gesehen. Worttrennung: Schwarm, Plural: Schwär·me. Aussprache: IPA: [ʃvaʁm]: Hörbeispiele. Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'Schwarm' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Schwarm beim Online Wömiv15.se: ✓ Bedeutung, ✓ Definition, ✓ Synonyme, ✓ Übersetzung, ✓ Rechtschreibung, ✓ Silbentrennung,​.

schwarm

Der Schwarm: Roman | Schätzing, Frank | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. „Der Schwarm” ist der erfolgreichste Roman des deutschen Schriftstellers Frank Schätzing. Der erschienene Thriller behandelt die existenzielle. Schwarm, umgangssprachliche Bezeichnung für einen großen, einheitlich formierten, dreidimensionalen mobilen Verband (meist anonymen Verband) flugf​. Melden Sie sich an, um dieses Wort auf Ihre Merkliste zu setzen. Wilmanns, Prof. Klaus-Günter K. Wuketits, Prof. Bruno B. Elke E. Dirk Read more. Sauermost, Elisabeth E. Grasser, Link.

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As such, a bomber Schwarm was equivalent to a flight in the Western Allied air forces. A Kette was also the term used for a "v" formation.

The term Rotte was also used for a formation of two aircraft: the smallest tactical unit, consisting of a leader and a wingman.

A German : Stabschwarm "staff schwarm " was attached to each Geschwader. The OKW was the highest in the military command structure.

It was responsible for the co-ordinated effort of the three military arms. It was headed by Wilhelm Keitel after he took over from war minister Werner von Blomberg in Since the head of the Luftwaffe, Göring, was also a cabinet minister, any Luftwaffe operational orders would come from Hitler to him, who would pass them on to Luftwaffe leaders, bypassing the OKW.

This created a military command out of the all encompassing Reich Air Ministry RLM , controlling all aspects of aviation.

The OKL covered general as well as operational staff of the Luftwaffe. The following parts of the Luftwaffe were under its command: [9] [16].

The other components, such as armament and aircraft manufacturing remained under the control of the RLM. It was strategically divided into eight directorates German : Abteilungen numbered consecutively.

The directorates were:. There were also 17 Inspectorates German : Luftwaffen Inspektion :. These were each the size of an Air Corps and were basic territorial units of the Luftwaffe following its geographical organization.

Their headquarters were as given in the table: [21]. In addition, Luftkreis VII was established on 12 October with its headquarters at Braunschweig, and is shown incorporated into the above-mentioned table [22].

Each Luftkreis was led by a Höherer Fliegerkommandeur Senior Air Commander in charge of all aviation units within its area.

These included, two or three Luftgaukommandos administrative commands , a signals command, a medical battalion and a procurement and supply group.

Their area of operations also included civilian airfields and Civil Air Defense. The following year, all the replacement battalions in that area also came under their control.

In , these were extended to regiment size or Fliegerersatzregimente. From —36, Flak units in the area also came under their command.

Hermann Göring and Erhard Milch appointed retired army lieutenant generals to lead each Luftkreis. They were promoted to General der Flieger.

A retired navy officer, Konrad Zander , was similarly promoted and put in charge of Luftkreis VI supporting the naval units.

Operationally, the Luftwaffe organization underwent changes in July Luftkreise were consolidated into three Luftwaffengruppenkommandos Airforce Group Commands.

This change also rendered the three digit Geschwader identifiers meaningless. From 1 November , Geschwader identifiers were changed universally.

The third digit of the Unit Identifier was replaced with the same digit as its parent Luftwaffengruppenkommando. For example, all units under Luftwaffengruppenkommando 1 headquartered in Berlin , had the third digit of their identifiers replaced with a '1'.

By the end of April , another Luftwaffengruppenkommando was added. All four Luftwaffengruppenkommando were renamed Luftflotte Air Fleets.

Geschwader under each Luftflotte , were re-numbered sequentially. Each Luftflotte received a batch of For example, Luftflotte 1 Geschwader were numbered 0—25, Luftflotte 2 Geschwader became 26—50 and so on.

Within the Air Ministry, for administration purposes, the Luftwaffe was organized into Luftgaue Air Districts , based on the army's Wehrkreis "military districts".

A Luftgau was responsible for all administrative activities, such as training, administration, maintenance, air defense, signals, recruitment and reserve personnel.

Those Luftgaue established within Germany were numbered non-consecutively with Roman numerals. Luftgaue were also established as required in occupied Europe and were named after their location, e.

Luftgau Belgien-Nordfrankreich was headquartered in Brussels and responsible for Belgium and northern France.

These sections were numbered in Arabic numerals followed by a Luftgau designator. Flying units used the services of a Luftgau through Flughafenbereichkommandanturen Airfield Regional Commands.

Each Luftgau usually had five such commands. Each regional command was divided into five or more Einsatzhafenkommandanturen Operational Airfield Commands.

The operational commands were located at the airfields where it serviced the flying units. Operationally under the OKL, all Luftwaffe units were organized into Luftflotte , which were equivalent to an army group.

Its size and number of subordinated units, was flexible and changed depending on need. The Luftflotten were created according to the geographical area.

As the Wehrmacht occupied new territories, new Luftflotten were created. Each Luftflotte , had an adjutant or staff officer assisting the commanding officer.

Although a Luftflotte could be moved from one area to another by the RLM, the Luftflotte had absolute control over all aspects of aviation in that area, including ground operations.

This also included legal, administration, signals and supply work. They were essentially divided into operational or administrative commands.

The signal services consisted of three Luft-Nachrichtenregimenter signals regiments in a Luftflotte. There was also a Fliegerabwehrkanone Flak unit.

A Luftflotte was operationally divided into one or more Fliegerkorps "Air Corps" of varying size, depending on its area of operations. They were responsible for all operational matters such as deployment, air traffic, ordnance and maintenance.

A Fliegerkorps could potentially be loaned out to another Luftflotte depending on the nature of the operation. There were a total of 13 Fliegerkorps.

Similar to the Luftflotte , each Fliegerkorps had its own geographical area of operations. It consisted of several Geschwader along with Reconnaissance Gruppen Groups.

The Geschwader could be either fighter or bomber units. Depending on the nature or purpose of the Fliegerkorps , it would have only bomber or fighter units.

Similar to the Luftflotte , a Fliegerkorps also had an adjutant as well as other departments.

However, it did depend on the parent Luftflotte for administrative and supply purposes. The Fliegerkorps were numbered consecutively in Roman numerals.

However, during later reorganizations, most of these were replaced by the Fliegerkorps. Some remained in operation on the Eastern Front.

A Jagdkorps was a more specialized version of a Fliegerkorps with limited responsibility to fighter command only.

A Jagd-Division was subordinated to a Jagdkorps but specialized in fighter operations. Jagd-Divisionen fighter divisions were active at one point or other during this period.

Together the fighter force of Luftwaffe was also called Jagdwaffe. The Luftwaffe also had specialist units of varying sizes for testing new aircraft as well as captured Allied machines — these units could be as small as a Staffel , or as large as a Gruppe.

It was initially unnumbered and simply called the Lehrdivision Instruction Division but in later years several Erprobungskommando units of varying size were created to test specific new aircraft, usually numbered with the RLM aircraft designation system airframe number matching the aircraft they were meant to test.

Along with the aircraft test and evaluation, a Lehrdivision was also responsible for testing anti-aircraft defenses and air signals equipment.

The staff of this division were required to have prior combat experience. The Lehr units in this division were usually made part of operational units, receiving help from them for testing under combat conditions.

Unlike the Erprobungskommando units, a Lehrdivision did not undertake the testing of experimental aircraft. As the war went on, some of the units under its command were used for operational purposes.

In the Luftwaffe the largest mobile and autonomous unit was the Geschwader. It would be used for different purposes such as bombing, interception both single and twin engine , ground attack and reconnaissance.

A Geschwader would be named, based on its purpose. They would be named with an Arabic numeral following the word.

It was also customary to give an additional title to a Geschwader in honor of a distinguished person. For example, Jagdgeschwader 2 was named Jagdgeschwader 2 Richthofen in honor of Manfred von Richthofen.

Each Geschwader was commanded by a Geschwaderkommodore. This person usually had the rank of Oberst equivalent to colonel , Oberstleutnant lieutenant colonel or major.

He had a small staff along with an adjutant Staff Officer for operational as well as for administrative purposes. There would be a Stabschwarm staff schwarm of four aircraft including the Geschwaderkommodore's aircraft.

Typically there were three Gruppen groups under each Geschwader and sometimes a fourth or even a fifth gruppe was added to single engine fighter geschwader.

On several occasions, day fighter Geschwader or Jagdgeschwader were formed with four Gruppe strength from start. As the war progressed, the various sub-units of each numbered Geschwader operated separately and often on totally different fronts or theaters of war.

The Gruppe was the basic autonomous unit in the Luftwaffe, in both administration and strategic use. Each Gruppe would have a Stabschwarm staff schwarm of three aircraft.

The Gruppe would be commanded by a Gruppenkommandeur , that would be a Major or Hauptmann , who would have a small staff including administration, operations, medical and technical officers.

A Gruppe usually occupied one airfield. Gruppen from the same Geschwader typically occupied adjacent airfields. Each would have an air signals platoon, mechanical and administrative personnel.

There was also a trained fire-fighting crew doubling as police officers and staffed by the SS. As with the Geschwader , the Gruppe included staff officers tasked with additional administrative duties, usually an adjutant, technical, medical and operations officers.

These officers were usually though not always , experienced aircrew or pilots appointed from the operational cadre within the unit.

This would be combined with the abbreviated Geschwader designation — for example, the second Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 11 would be designated II.

Each Gruppe in turn consisted of three Staffeln. In total, each Gruppe had 30—40 aircraft including the Gruppenstab.

A Gruppe was often transferred from one Geschwader to another. After a transfer they would be re-designated.

In the case of bomber Geschwader, an Ergänzungsgruppe training group might be attached to a Geschwader as the fifth Gruppe and designated 'V' Roman numeral 5.

Although all Gruppen in a Geschwader performed the same role, they were not always equipped with the same aircraft. This was more prevalent in fighter Geschwader , but did occur in bomber units as well.

Some Gruppen of a fighter Geschwader would be equipped with Messerschmitt Bf s, while others would be equipped with Focke-Wulf Fw s.

There were several types of Gruppen acting in specialized autonomous roles, many centered around either reconnaissance or maritime-involved duties.

They were:. Other types of Gruppe -sized units of various types existed within the Luftwaffe structure as well:.

Each Gruppe comprised three or four Staffeln , but by late a fourth Staffel was usually added to fighter units, making the established strength of the unit approximately 65 to 70 aircraft, although during the war years operational strength tended to fluctuate greatly.

Personnel strength varied between 35 and aircrew, and to ground personnel. During the mid-war years a fourth Gruppe was introduced in many Geschwader , initially as an operational training unit for new aircrew.

However, these Gruppen soon became additional front-line units, performing the same tasks as their sister formations, while new Ergänzungseinheiten , or operational training units, were formed and took up their tasks.

A Staffel usually had nine to 12 aircraft. Others had as few as five or six aircraft due to losses. The commanding officer of a Staffel was known as a Staffelkapitän and had the rank of Hauptmann , Oberleutnant or sometimes Leutnant.

Staffeln were numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals within a Geschwader irrespective of the Gruppe they came under.

The Staffel designation would be similar to that of the Gruppe except for the Arabic numerals. For example, Staffel 6 of Jagdgeschwader 27 would be designated 6.

The Staffeln of Gruppe I would be numbered 1, 2 and 3. Those of Gruppe II would be numbered 4, 5 and 6. This was continued for the rest of the Gruppen.

When a Staffel was transferred from one group to another or from one Geschwader to another, it would be re-numbered accordingly.

The Staffel usually had a few vehicles allocated to it, and a mobile Fliegerhorstkompanie air station company to carry out minor repairs.

These were usually named after and attached to a Geschwader. The number of ground staff varied depending on its type, with about for a fighter unit and 80 in a bomber unit — a smaller number of personnel were required in the bomber units as many of the servicing functions were carried out by attached units provided by the local Luftgau or "Air District".

The service test units often known as Erprobungskommando could also be of Staffel or Gruppe organizational size, as well as existing outside of any such "set" unit size as a Gruppe or Staffel — the Heinkel He was service-tested by a Staffel -sized unit, known as Erprobungsstaffel , [35] frequently using the RLM airframe type number for the number of the unit testing the aircraft bearing it.

There were a few types of Staffeln acting in specialized autonomous, or semi-autonomous roles, if integrally attached to a Gruppe or Geschwader for differing duties from the main unit.

Some of these were:. The Luftwaffe began to set up their own nocturnal harassment Staffel-sized forces known as Störkampfstaffeln.

Eventually Gruppe -sized Nachtschlachtgruppen were used for the same general purpose as the Soviet units.

The Luftwaffe's own harassment aviation units also used similarly obsolete aircraft, but of German design. The Heinkel He 46 , Arado Ar 66 , Focke-Wulf Fw 56 and even the standard training biplane, the Gotha Go , were all deployed in their efforts at attempting to emulate the success of the Soviets.

A few specialized Staffel sized units existed within the Luftwaffe for such specialized tasks as weather observation Wettererkundungsstaffeln , contracted to Wekusta , specialized weaponry a so-called Staffel 92 was meant to be equipped with the cannon-armed Ju 88P -series of bomber destroyer fighters and even outside the actual Luftwaffe, such as aircraft factory-operated defense Staffeln , at least one of which even operated the Me late in the war.

A Staffel was divided into three Schwärme singular: Schwarm , "swarm" , consisting of four to six aircraft.

Each bomber Schwarm at full strength, six aircraft was divided into a Kette "chain" of three aircraft.

A fighter Schwarm four aircraft was divided into two Rotten singular: Rotte , "pack" of two aircraft, equivalent to a pair in the English-speaking world.

It had two aircraft flying in a loose pair called a 'Pack' German : Rotte. Two pairs constituted a German : Schwarm. The four aircraft were flown in what was called the "Finger-four" formation.

These aircraft were spread apart so that each pilot was offered maximum visibility. This arrangement was so successful that Soviet pilots in the Spanish Civil War followed the same technique.

However, on returning home, they had to revert to the standard "V" formation. In this formation, where each aircraft flew in positions similar to the fingers of an open hand hence the name , the leader German : Rottenführer was at the front, while on his left wingtip was his partner from the Rotte.

The other Rotte was on the right wingtip of the leader. The partner in the second Rotte being on the right wingtip of his partner. The Rotte fighting pair also added to its flexibility, as a Schwarm could easily break into two Rotte pairs without losing its fighting ability.

The Rottenführer could attack enemy aircraft, leaving his wingman to watch for the enemy. It was much more flexible than the rigid three-aircraft "Vic" formation the RAF used at the start of the war.

In the Schwarm the aircraft had plenty of space to maneuver, so they were free to scan the horizon for enemy aircraft rather than focusing on maintaining a close formation.

Luftwaffe controlled the bulk of German anti-aircraft artillery commonly called Flak since the s. The smallest tactical unit of anti-aircraft artillery was a battery German : Batterie.

Battalions would be "light" leichte , "mixed" gemischte , or "heavy" schwere , referring to the size of guns in their batteries.

The battalions were variously organized into regiments Flak-Regimenter , brigades Flak-Brigaden e. Flak-Division and flak corps Flakkorps , although the hierarchy was neither very strict or very stable throughout the history.

Late in the war, AA units were bolstered by the use of foreigners and German youths. The number of transport battalions varied depending on location and need of transport of the divisions.

The first of these was formed in Berlin on 1 July as the Air Defense Command Luftverteidigungskommando but later renamed as 1st.

Flak Division. One of the unique characteristics of the Luftwaffe as opposed to independent air forces of other nations , was the possession of an organic paratrooper force; the Fallschirmjäger.

These were established in They saw action in their proper role during —, most notably in the capture of the Belgian Army fortress at Eben—Emael and the Battle of the Netherlands in May They also took part in the invasion of Crete in May More than 4, Fallschirmjäger were killed during the Crete operation.

Consequently, these forces were only used for smaller-scale operations, such as the successful rescue of Benito Mussolini , the then-deposed dictator of Italy, in Fallschirmjäger formations were used as standard infantry in all theaters of the war.

As the Prussian Minister of the Interior, Göring formed an elite police force in early It consisted of men with its headquarters in Berlin.

After several name changes within the following six months, it was named the Landespolizeigruppe General Göring.

During the next two years, it grew to become the Regiment General Göring. After the formation of the Luftwaffe was announced, Göring transferred this unit to the German air arm.

At that time, it consisted of the following units: [48]. In late , volunteers for the Paratroop Corps were combined in the I. This along with the Pionier-Kompanie formed the IV.

They still remained part of the Regiment Hermann Göring until March In March they were renamed I.

In late , the regiment had expanded even further and consisted of the following units: [48]. In order to achieve this, another division called Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier Division 2 Hermann Göring was formed.

This was staffed by fresh recruits from both the army and the Luftwaffe. These were predominantly formed from volunteer or surplus Luftwaffe personnel.

Their goal was to maintain airfield security against Soviet Partisan activity. Each regiment consisted of four battalions.

Each battalion consisted of three light companies and one heavy company. They also had a headquarters company and one signals platoon.

There was also an anti-tank battalion. It had two companies equipped with nine 5 cm PaK 38 and one company equipped with captured Russian 7.

Due to a lack of training in ground combat skills, these regiments were limited to defensive operations. Although intended to act as a single unit, the divisions were separated and served with army or with Fallschirmjäger units.

While in the field, these units were tactically under the command of the army but administratively still under Luftwaffe control.

The strength of a Luftwaffe Field Division was half that of an army infantry division. It did have a mixed Flak battalion and an artillery battalion.

The composition of the artillery battalion varied. It had one heavy battery with three 20 mm cannons and four 88 mm guns along with twenty-seven 20 mm anti-aircraft guns.

It had a headquarters staff as well as signals support troops. The Luftwaffe Field Division had a minimal administrative staff along with logistical support personnel in pioneer, medical and supply companies along with maintenance and other staff.

Although the division gave the impression of strength, the reality was that it was barely the size of an army brigade.

But the fighting strength was only 2, Although the army was short of manpower, Göring blocked the transfer of surplus Luftwaffe personnel to be trained for the army and instead increased the number of field divisions.

Besides the lack of training and combat experience of the Luftwaffe commanders, the army had to supply equipment to these units.

Oxford Companions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Macmillan Library Reference. Shawarma is a popular Levantine Arab specialty.

Shawarma - An Arab sandwich similar to the gyro. Gulf News. Retrieved May 6, Neither in the written recipes of the medieval Arab cuisine nor in the Turkish cookbooks from the first half of the 19th century are there any indications.

According to research carried out by the Turkish master chef Rennan Yaman, who lives in Berlin, the doner kebab is an amazingly young creation of Ottoman cuisine.

Cambridge University Press. Bursa is the town that gave birth to the world-famous doner kebab , meat roasted on a vertical revolving spit.

In Hosking, Richard ed. Totnes: Prospect Books. Levantine cuisine. Food portal Drink portal. Lebanese cuisine.

Braided cheese Kashkawan cheese Hallum cheese. Kebab Shawarma Kofta Shish kofte. List of sandwiches. Sandwich bread Sandwich loaf Soup and sandwich.

Category: Sandwiches Food portal. Street food. List of street foods List of food trucks Food trucks in Tampa, Florida.

Food street. Hidden categories: CS1 German-language sources de Articles with short description Articles containing Arabic-language text Commons category link from Wikidata.

Namespaces Article Talk.

Schwarm - Bedeutungen

Christian C. Fix, Dr. Müller, Wolfgang Harry W. Winfried W. Herdenbildung kann zeitweise sein oder nur bestimmte See more betreffen Jungfischschwärme, Schwärme adulter Wanderheuschreckensie kann auch obligatorisch sein manche Hochseefische. Braun, Andreas A. Collatz, Prof. Riemann, Prof. Friedrich Schaub, Prof. Wilker, Lars L. Dieter D. Oelze, Prof. Lothar L. Article source, Claudia C. Liedvogel, Prof. Lamparski, Prof. Stöckli, Dr. Gabriele G. Axel A. Andreas A. Was ist ein Twitter-Roman? Kirkilionis, Dr. Schwarm, der. Grammatik Substantiv (Maskulinum) · Genitiv Singular: Schwarm(​e)s · Nominativ Plural: Schwärme. Der Schwarm | Schätzing, Frank | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Der Schwarm: Roman | Schätzing, Frank | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Schwarm, umgangssprachliche Bezeichnung für einen großen, einheitlich formierten, dreidimensionalen mobilen Verband (meist anonymen Verband) flugf​. „Der Schwarm” ist der erfolgreichste Roman des deutschen Schriftstellers Frank Schätzing. Der erschienene Thriller behandelt die existenzielle. schwarm

It was initially unnumbered and simply called the Lehrdivision Instruction Division but in later years several Erprobungskommando units of varying size were created to test specific new aircraft, usually numbered with the RLM aircraft designation system airframe number matching the aircraft they were meant to test.

Along with the aircraft test and evaluation, a Lehrdivision was also responsible for testing anti-aircraft defenses and air signals equipment.

The staff of this division were required to have prior combat experience. The Lehr units in this division were usually made part of operational units, receiving help from them for testing under combat conditions.

Unlike the Erprobungskommando units, a Lehrdivision did not undertake the testing of experimental aircraft. As the war went on, some of the units under its command were used for operational purposes.

In the Luftwaffe the largest mobile and autonomous unit was the Geschwader. It would be used for different purposes such as bombing, interception both single and twin engine , ground attack and reconnaissance.

A Geschwader would be named, based on its purpose. They would be named with an Arabic numeral following the word. It was also customary to give an additional title to a Geschwader in honor of a distinguished person.

For example, Jagdgeschwader 2 was named Jagdgeschwader 2 Richthofen in honor of Manfred von Richthofen.

Each Geschwader was commanded by a Geschwaderkommodore. This person usually had the rank of Oberst equivalent to colonel , Oberstleutnant lieutenant colonel or major.

He had a small staff along with an adjutant Staff Officer for operational as well as for administrative purposes. There would be a Stabschwarm staff schwarm of four aircraft including the Geschwaderkommodore's aircraft.

Typically there were three Gruppen groups under each Geschwader and sometimes a fourth or even a fifth gruppe was added to single engine fighter geschwader.

On several occasions, day fighter Geschwader or Jagdgeschwader were formed with four Gruppe strength from start. As the war progressed, the various sub-units of each numbered Geschwader operated separately and often on totally different fronts or theaters of war.

The Gruppe was the basic autonomous unit in the Luftwaffe, in both administration and strategic use.

Each Gruppe would have a Stabschwarm staff schwarm of three aircraft. The Gruppe would be commanded by a Gruppenkommandeur , that would be a Major or Hauptmann , who would have a small staff including administration, operations, medical and technical officers.

A Gruppe usually occupied one airfield. Gruppen from the same Geschwader typically occupied adjacent airfields. Each would have an air signals platoon, mechanical and administrative personnel.

There was also a trained fire-fighting crew doubling as police officers and staffed by the SS. As with the Geschwader , the Gruppe included staff officers tasked with additional administrative duties, usually an adjutant, technical, medical and operations officers.

These officers were usually though not always , experienced aircrew or pilots appointed from the operational cadre within the unit.

This would be combined with the abbreviated Geschwader designation — for example, the second Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 11 would be designated II.

Each Gruppe in turn consisted of three Staffeln. In total, each Gruppe had 30—40 aircraft including the Gruppenstab.

A Gruppe was often transferred from one Geschwader to another. After a transfer they would be re-designated. In the case of bomber Geschwader, an Ergänzungsgruppe training group might be attached to a Geschwader as the fifth Gruppe and designated 'V' Roman numeral 5.

Although all Gruppen in a Geschwader performed the same role, they were not always equipped with the same aircraft.

This was more prevalent in fighter Geschwader , but did occur in bomber units as well. Some Gruppen of a fighter Geschwader would be equipped with Messerschmitt Bf s, while others would be equipped with Focke-Wulf Fw s.

There were several types of Gruppen acting in specialized autonomous roles, many centered around either reconnaissance or maritime-involved duties.

They were:. Other types of Gruppe -sized units of various types existed within the Luftwaffe structure as well:.

Each Gruppe comprised three or four Staffeln , but by late a fourth Staffel was usually added to fighter units, making the established strength of the unit approximately 65 to 70 aircraft, although during the war years operational strength tended to fluctuate greatly.

Personnel strength varied between 35 and aircrew, and to ground personnel. During the mid-war years a fourth Gruppe was introduced in many Geschwader , initially as an operational training unit for new aircrew.

However, these Gruppen soon became additional front-line units, performing the same tasks as their sister formations, while new Ergänzungseinheiten , or operational training units, were formed and took up their tasks.

A Staffel usually had nine to 12 aircraft. Others had as few as five or six aircraft due to losses. The commanding officer of a Staffel was known as a Staffelkapitän and had the rank of Hauptmann , Oberleutnant or sometimes Leutnant.

Staffeln were numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals within a Geschwader irrespective of the Gruppe they came under. The Staffel designation would be similar to that of the Gruppe except for the Arabic numerals.

For example, Staffel 6 of Jagdgeschwader 27 would be designated 6. The Staffeln of Gruppe I would be numbered 1, 2 and 3.

Those of Gruppe II would be numbered 4, 5 and 6. This was continued for the rest of the Gruppen. When a Staffel was transferred from one group to another or from one Geschwader to another, it would be re-numbered accordingly.

The Staffel usually had a few vehicles allocated to it, and a mobile Fliegerhorstkompanie air station company to carry out minor repairs.

These were usually named after and attached to a Geschwader. The number of ground staff varied depending on its type, with about for a fighter unit and 80 in a bomber unit — a smaller number of personnel were required in the bomber units as many of the servicing functions were carried out by attached units provided by the local Luftgau or "Air District".

The service test units often known as Erprobungskommando could also be of Staffel or Gruppe organizational size, as well as existing outside of any such "set" unit size as a Gruppe or Staffel — the Heinkel He was service-tested by a Staffel -sized unit, known as Erprobungsstaffel , [35] frequently using the RLM airframe type number for the number of the unit testing the aircraft bearing it.

There were a few types of Staffeln acting in specialized autonomous, or semi-autonomous roles, if integrally attached to a Gruppe or Geschwader for differing duties from the main unit.

Some of these were:. The Luftwaffe began to set up their own nocturnal harassment Staffel-sized forces known as Störkampfstaffeln. Eventually Gruppe -sized Nachtschlachtgruppen were used for the same general purpose as the Soviet units.

The Luftwaffe's own harassment aviation units also used similarly obsolete aircraft, but of German design.

The Heinkel He 46 , Arado Ar 66 , Focke-Wulf Fw 56 and even the standard training biplane, the Gotha Go , were all deployed in their efforts at attempting to emulate the success of the Soviets.

A few specialized Staffel sized units existed within the Luftwaffe for such specialized tasks as weather observation Wettererkundungsstaffeln , contracted to Wekusta , specialized weaponry a so-called Staffel 92 was meant to be equipped with the cannon-armed Ju 88P -series of bomber destroyer fighters and even outside the actual Luftwaffe, such as aircraft factory-operated defense Staffeln , at least one of which even operated the Me late in the war.

A Staffel was divided into three Schwärme singular: Schwarm , "swarm" , consisting of four to six aircraft. Each bomber Schwarm at full strength, six aircraft was divided into a Kette "chain" of three aircraft.

A fighter Schwarm four aircraft was divided into two Rotten singular: Rotte , "pack" of two aircraft, equivalent to a pair in the English-speaking world.

It had two aircraft flying in a loose pair called a 'Pack' German : Rotte. Two pairs constituted a German : Schwarm.

The four aircraft were flown in what was called the "Finger-four" formation. These aircraft were spread apart so that each pilot was offered maximum visibility.

This arrangement was so successful that Soviet pilots in the Spanish Civil War followed the same technique.

However, on returning home, they had to revert to the standard "V" formation. In this formation, where each aircraft flew in positions similar to the fingers of an open hand hence the name , the leader German : Rottenführer was at the front, while on his left wingtip was his partner from the Rotte.

The other Rotte was on the right wingtip of the leader. The partner in the second Rotte being on the right wingtip of his partner.

The Rotte fighting pair also added to its flexibility, as a Schwarm could easily break into two Rotte pairs without losing its fighting ability.

The Rottenführer could attack enemy aircraft, leaving his wingman to watch for the enemy. It was much more flexible than the rigid three-aircraft "Vic" formation the RAF used at the start of the war.

In the Schwarm the aircraft had plenty of space to maneuver, so they were free to scan the horizon for enemy aircraft rather than focusing on maintaining a close formation.

Luftwaffe controlled the bulk of German anti-aircraft artillery commonly called Flak since the s. The smallest tactical unit of anti-aircraft artillery was a battery German : Batterie.

Battalions would be "light" leichte , "mixed" gemischte , or "heavy" schwere , referring to the size of guns in their batteries.

The battalions were variously organized into regiments Flak-Regimenter , brigades Flak-Brigaden e. Flak-Division and flak corps Flakkorps , although the hierarchy was neither very strict or very stable throughout the history.

Late in the war, AA units were bolstered by the use of foreigners and German youths. The number of transport battalions varied depending on location and need of transport of the divisions.

The first of these was formed in Berlin on 1 July as the Air Defense Command Luftverteidigungskommando but later renamed as 1st.

Flak Division. One of the unique characteristics of the Luftwaffe as opposed to independent air forces of other nations , was the possession of an organic paratrooper force; the Fallschirmjäger.

These were established in They saw action in their proper role during —, most notably in the capture of the Belgian Army fortress at Eben—Emael and the Battle of the Netherlands in May They also took part in the invasion of Crete in May More than 4, Fallschirmjäger were killed during the Crete operation.

Consequently, these forces were only used for smaller-scale operations, such as the successful rescue of Benito Mussolini , the then-deposed dictator of Italy, in Fallschirmjäger formations were used as standard infantry in all theaters of the war.

As the Prussian Minister of the Interior, Göring formed an elite police force in early It consisted of men with its headquarters in Berlin.

After several name changes within the following six months, it was named the Landespolizeigruppe General Göring. During the next two years, it grew to become the Regiment General Göring.

After the formation of the Luftwaffe was announced, Göring transferred this unit to the German air arm.

At that time, it consisted of the following units: [48]. In late , volunteers for the Paratroop Corps were combined in the I.

This along with the Pionier-Kompanie formed the IV. They still remained part of the Regiment Hermann Göring until March In March they were renamed I.

In late , the regiment had expanded even further and consisted of the following units: [48]. In order to achieve this, another division called Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier Division 2 Hermann Göring was formed.

This was staffed by fresh recruits from both the army and the Luftwaffe. These were predominantly formed from volunteer or surplus Luftwaffe personnel.

Their goal was to maintain airfield security against Soviet Partisan activity. Each regiment consisted of four battalions.

Each battalion consisted of three light companies and one heavy company. They also had a headquarters company and one signals platoon.

There was also an anti-tank battalion. It had two companies equipped with nine 5 cm PaK 38 and one company equipped with captured Russian 7.

Due to a lack of training in ground combat skills, these regiments were limited to defensive operations. Although intended to act as a single unit, the divisions were separated and served with army or with Fallschirmjäger units.

While in the field, these units were tactically under the command of the army but administratively still under Luftwaffe control.

The strength of a Luftwaffe Field Division was half that of an army infantry division. It did have a mixed Flak battalion and an artillery battalion.

The composition of the artillery battalion varied. It had one heavy battery with three 20 mm cannons and four 88 mm guns along with twenty-seven 20 mm anti-aircraft guns.

It had a headquarters staff as well as signals support troops. The Luftwaffe Field Division had a minimal administrative staff along with logistical support personnel in pioneer, medical and supply companies along with maintenance and other staff.

Although the division gave the impression of strength, the reality was that it was barely the size of an army brigade. But the fighting strength was only 2, Although the army was short of manpower, Göring blocked the transfer of surplus Luftwaffe personnel to be trained for the army and instead increased the number of field divisions.

Besides the lack of training and combat experience of the Luftwaffe commanders, the army had to supply equipment to these units.

Instead of being used on quieter sections of the various fronts to relieve army units for use elsewhere, they were put into action where the Germans were hard pressed and suffered accordingly.

Aircraft markings were used to distinguish friend from foe. There were several changes in identification markings from until the end of the war in From to , civilian aircraft were painted with a bright red horizontal band with a black Hakenkreuz swastika in a white circle superimposed, shown only on the vertical stabilizer.

From , the Balkenkreuz national cross with four equal arms , basically inherited from the early spring period of Luftstreitkräfte service when it first appeared in World War I, was applied in black and white, with somewhat different proportions one-quarter as wide as its length from end-to-end than the WW I-period insignia, and without the white border outlining the "ends" of the cross, the white borders forming four right-angled "flanks" around the central black core cross.

It was painted on the fuselage about halfway between the wing and the tail and on the upper and lower sides of each wing.

The flanks came in two regulation dimension formats, with much narrower flanks before July used in all six positions on an airframe — a wider-flanked variation, for use underneath wings and on the fuselage sides, came into use from July onwards.

This helped in immediate identification. During the Spanish Civil War, where the Luftwaffe participated through the Condor Legion , aircraft were repainted with a white Andrea's Cross in a black circle.

The tail was all white with Andrea's Cross on the rudder. In Germany itself, the Balkenkreuz was once again used as the national insignia on the fuselage and wings in six locations, initially with a very narrow set of four white "flanks", which were widened around —39, with the usual Hakenkreuz on the vertical tail surfaces, usually on the fixed fin, but sometimes instead on the rudder as done on some Arado -designed aircraft and on airframe designs that either had a small fin or one braced with struts.

Medical aircraft were painted with a red cross on a white circular background. Later on in the war when camouflage was more necessary, the Balkenkreuz had only a white or black outline in a "low-visibility" format, consisting only of the four right-angle "flanks" that had previously bordered the now-absent central black core cross of the Balkenkreuz , [56] with the Hakenkreuz also frequently being done with a white or black border only, omitting the central black shape.

Until , civilian aircraft only had a registration painted on. This was usually the letter D for Deutschland national identification letter in use from before , followed by three or four numbers.

After , military planes carried, on the fuselage, an alphanumeric four-character Geschwaderkennung code with the Balkenkreuz after the first two characters, always consisting of one letter and one number in a unique combination for a specific Geschwader or Gruppe.

The third letter always designated the individual aircraft ID within a Staffel , while the fourth letter designated the Staffel itself within the larger Geschwader or Gruppe unit it belonged to.

In the Luftwaffe, there were centralized regulations on field camouflage patterns. In practice, these were either amended or ignored.

Units in various areas used their own way of painting the aircraft excepting the Geschwaderkennung alphanumeric unit identifiers.

Units in the very northern parts of Europe used pale blue wavy lines on a gray background. Night units of both fighters and bombers tended to color their aircraft completely black with a light brown or light gray pattern.

The irregular lines were meant to match the intricate patterns of ocean waves usually called "wave-mirror" camouflage as seen from the air, especially for interceptions of RAF night bombers over the North Sea.

The nighttime skies over Germany usually had some light from either moonlight or even from city lights reflecting upwards into the skies , making a light base color effective for night fighters against sometimes cloudy or foggy skies below the night fighters' usual combat altitudes.

By , as economic conditions tightened, front line units used captured allied paint where available. Central control over camouflage relaxed even further.

With units disbanding and reforming frequently, intricate patterns became less common. Dark green became more or less the standard.

With deteriorating conditions and scarce supplies, various motley color schemes were used. This changed only for those day fighter and "destroyer" units that flew as part of the Defense of the Reich Reichsverteidigung campaign.

Later in these units adopted the pattern of a distinct color band, or two-colored bands, around the aft fuselage, with each Geschwader usually having their own unique combination.

Single engine fighter units used chevrons to represent the pilot's rank or seniority. Bars, points or crosses to represent the Gruppe to which it belonged, and a number representing the Jagdgeschwader were also utilized.

The Geschwaderkommodore of a fighter geschwader was represented by two chevrons and a vertical bar. The Gruppenkommandeur was represented by two chevrons; while a Gruppe Technical Officer would have a single chevron and a circle.

For a staff pilot, there would be a thick black line all around the aircraft. Some day fighter units also used geometric patterns of alternating black and white horizontal stripes on the engine cowling, or checkerboard patterns, also on the cowling.

During the Defense of the Reich campaign, there was a general adoption of a system of colored rear fuselage bands, with unique combinations assigned to each Jagdgeschwader engaged in the campaign.

Use of these colored fuselage bands was generally abandoned by mid At one point, a color scheme that painted the rudder in white, similar to what had been done during the North African Campaign , was trialled for units dedicated to Defense of the Reich duties, [56] [61] which also included the aforementioned Reichsverteidigung wing-code rear fuselage stripes for each individual Jagdgeschwader.

The unofficial way to represent one's unit was the unit badge. These were solely at the discretion of the commanding officer, so badges of all shapes, sizes and subjects appeared.

On the Eastern Front, they were officially banned in later years as they provided intelligence to the enemy.

The full four-character code was usually shown on the fuselage sides, sometimes with the individual aircraft letter repeated under the wings.

Gruppe and Staffel -sized units could also have their own unique codes of this type, most often used for reconnaissance and maritime aviation Gruppen and Wekusta weather observation Staffeln , with Staffel sized units using the four-character alphanumeric code almost always using an "H" as the fourth and last character.

Late in the war, the first two characters of the Geschwaderkennung code designating the geschwader were depicted on the fuselage sides in a much reduced size, possibly as a "low-visibility" security measure.

The code tended though not always , to be omitted altogether by From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Schwarm. Main article: Luftwaffe. Main article: Oberkommando der Luftwaffe. Main article: Finger-four.

Main article: Fallschirmjäger. Main article: Luftwaffe Field Division. This section needs additional citations for verification.

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Bernage, F. Heinkel He Shrewsbury, England: Airlife Publishing. Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 24 December Normally, the German Army Heer anti-aircraft units were called Batterie as well, except the units of anti-aircraft machine guns which were called Kompanie , in the infantry style.

Heinkel He — — Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing. Retrieved 21 November Aircraft in Profile No. Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 29 March Bickers, Richard Townshend Von Richthofen: The Legend Evaluated.

Naval Institute Press. Oxford University Press. Bower, Charles F. Palgrave Macmillan. Boyne, Walter J.

Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. Jaine, Tom ed. The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford Companions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Macmillan Library Reference. Shawarma is a popular Levantine Arab specialty. Shawarma - An Arab sandwich similar to the gyro.

Gulf News. Retrieved May 6, Neither in the written recipes of the medieval Arab cuisine nor in the Turkish cookbooks from the first half of the 19th century are there any indications.

According to research carried out by the Turkish master chef Rennan Yaman, who lives in Berlin, the doner kebab is an amazingly young creation of Ottoman cuisine.

Cambridge University Press. Bursa is the town that gave birth to the world-famous doner kebab , meat roasted on a vertical revolving spit.

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